Azamgarh is a city and a municipal board in Azamgarh district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The town serves as the headquarters of Azamgarh District.
Like most towns in northern parts of India, Azamgarh is situated on the banks of a river--in this case on the Tons River. Azamgarh was founded around 1665, by a powerful landlord named Azam Khan.
Azamgarh became a center of learning with the founding of Shibli National College, by the Muslim theoligan Shibli Nomani. Around 1883, Mr. Nomani, inspired by the works of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan of Aligarh Muslim University, established a college drawing scholars from all parts of Uttar Pradesh (then United Province) and northern India. Allama Shibli Nomani established an academy, now known as Darul Musannefin Shibli Academy, prior to his death in 1914. Darul Musannefin (house of writers) brings out a literary monthly journal in Urdu, Ma'arif.
Azamgarh is well connected to other parts of the state, and the recent launch of direct train connections with Bombay and Delhi (Mumbai and Delhi) has made this town more accessible. People of Azamgarh actively participated in various national movements especially in Quit India Movement in 1942.
More historical data on Azamgarh can be found in this 1911 writeup of a British fact book and also at Azamgarh district website
Azamgarh is located at 26.06° N 83.19° E. It has an average elevation of 64 metres (209 feet).
Azamgarh attracted international attention due to alleged corruption in its judicial system when certain judges declared persons dead at the behest of bribing relatives who sought inheritances. A victim, Lal Bihari, founded the Association of the Dead in that city to help victims cope with this particular legal abuse.
Rahul Sankrityayan (linguist and polymath)
Shibli Nomani (poet, writer, educationist)
Sir Iqbal Ahmed (First Advocate Muslim Chief justice of Allahabad High Court: 1945 to 1947)
Hamiduddin Farahi (religious scholar and mufassir)
Kaifi Azmi (Urdu poet)
Shabana Azmi (film actress & Ex. M.P.)
Ram Naresh Yadav (Former Chief Minister Uttar Pradesh)
Ameen Ahsan Islahi (religious scholar and mufassir)
Abu Asim Azmi (M.P.)
Ishtiyaq Ahmad Zilli (historian)
Zafarul Islam Khan (noted scholar and journalist)