Location : Nothern India
Language : Hindi, English, Punjabi, etc.
Delhi has been the capital of several ancient Indian empires and a major city along the old trade routes between northwest India and the Indo-Gangetic Plains. It is the site of many ancient and medieval monuments, archaeological sites and remains.
After the British Raj took control of India during the 19th century, Calcutta became the capital until George V announced in 1911 that it was to move back to Delhi. A new capital city, New Delhi, was built during the 1920s. When India gained independence from British rule in 1947, New Delhi was declared its capital and seat of government. As such, New Delhi houses important offices of the federal government, including the Parliament of India.
Geography And Climate
Delhi is located at 28°61'N, 77°23'E, and lies in northern India. It borders the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh on East and Haryana on West, North and South. Delhi lies almost entirely in the Gangetic plains. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plain and the Delhi ridge.
Delhi has a semi-arid climate with high variation between summer and winter temperatures. Summers are long, from early April to October, with the monsoon season in between.
Winter starts in October and peaks in January and is notorious for its heavy fog. Extreme temperatures range from -0.6 °C (30.9 °F) to 47 °C (117 °F). The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 14 °C to 33 °C (58 °F to 92 °F). The average annual rainfall is approximately 714 mm (28.1 inches), most of which is during the monsoons in July and August. The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.
India's capital has more sights than any other city in India, but they are concentrated in three distinct areas -- Old Delhi, New Delhi, and South Delhi (known as the Qutb Minar Complex) -- which can be tackled as separate tours or grouped together.
Built with a mix of Western and Indian styles, Rashtrapati Bhavan was originally built for the Governor General of India, aka Viceroy of India. Inaugurated in 1931 as the Viceregal Lodge, the name was changed in 1950 after India became a republic.
Built in the memory of more than 90,000 Indian soldiers who lost their lives during the Afghan Wars and World War I, the India Gate is one of the most famous monuments in Delhi.
The decision for constructing the Red Fort was made in 1639, when Shah Jahan decided to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi. Within eight years, Shahjahanabad was completed with the Red Fort-Qila-i-Mubarak (fortunate citadel) — Delhi's seventh fort — ready in all its magnificence to receive the Emperor. Though much has changed with the large-scale demolitions during the British occupation of the fort, its important structures have survived.
The Qutub Minar is located in a small village called Mehrauli in South Delhi. It was built by Qutub-ud-din Aybak of the Slave Dynasty, who took possession of Delhi in 1206. It is a fluted red sandstone tower, which tapers up to a height of 72.5 metres and is covered with intricate carvings and verses from the Qur'an. Qutub-ud-din Aybak began constructing this victory tower as a sign of Muslim domination of Delhi and as a minaret for the Muslim priest, the muezzin, to call the faithful to prayer. However, only the first story was completed by Qutub-ud-din. The other stories were built by his successor Iltutmish.
Chandni Chowk, a main marketplace in Delhi, keeps alive the city's living legacy of Shahjahanabad. Created by Shah Jahan the builder of Taj Mahal, the old city, with the Red Fort as its focal point and Jama Masjid as the praying centre, has a fascinating market called Chandni Chowk.
Travel down the arterial road to enter the portal of Jama Masjid. The great mosque of 'Old' Delhi is synonymous with the second largest religion in India and is the largest in India.
Also called the Birla Mandir, the Laxminarayan Temple was built by the Birla family in 1938. It is a temple with a large garden and fountains behind it. The temple attracts thousands of devotees on Janmashtami day, the birthday of Lord Krishna.
Inaugurated in November 2005, Akshardham has become one of the most visited tourist places of Delhi. In the sprawling 100 acre land rests an intricately carved monument, high tech exhibitions, IMAX theatre, musical fountain, food court and gardens.
Gurdwara Bangla Sahib
One of the many Gurdwaras in Delhi, this the most visited one in the Delhi area. Millions visit this Gurdwara from all over the world and of all religions to offer their prayers at this elegant yet historical Gurdwara in Delhi. This is not just a sacred Sikh shrine, but also very important to many Hindus.
Humayun's Tomb is one of Delhi's most famous landmarks. The monument has an architectural design similar to the Taj Mahal.
Humayun's Tomb was built by Humayun's widow, Hamida Banu Begum. Designed by a Persian architect named Mirak Mirza Ghiyas, the structure was begun in 1562 and completed in 1565. The tomb established a standard for all later Mughal monuments, which followed its design, most notably the Taj Mahal.
is believed to have been built on Indraprastha, the original city of Delhi in historical timelines. It was built by the Afghan ruler, Sher Shah, during the brief interregnum in the Mughal Empire. He completed the fort during his reign from 1538-45. It marks a return to the earlier Afghan style with massive walls and three large gateways.
On the bank Yamuna River, which flows past Delhi, there is Raj Ghat — the final resting place of Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation. It has become an essential point of call for all visiting dignitaries. Two museums dedicated to Gandhi are situated nearby.
Lying close to the Raj Ghat, the Shanti Vana (literally, the forest of peace) is the place where India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was cremated. The area is now a beautiful park adorned by trees planted by visiting dignitaries and heads of state.
Bahá'í House of Worship (Lotus Temple)
The Lotus Temple is a Bahá'í House of Worship, situated in South Delhi and shaped like a lotus. It was built by the Bahá'í community.
It is the commercial centre of Delhi and was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect of the Government of India. Located in the heart of the city, it is a circle of double storeyed arcade complex, occupied by shop owners or business houses. With several food joints and shop of varied items, it is the centre of entertainment and business activities in Delhi.
This large museum located at Janpath offers a wide array of exhibits depicting the five thousand years of Indian history. The exhibits in different galleries are arranged according to different periods in Indian history. Some of the exhibit in this museum include that of the Dancing Girl from Mohenjodaro (2,500 BC) and many paintings and manuscripts from Moghul period. Open 10:00 am to 5:00 pm. Monday closed.
National Science Centre Museum
This museum designed for kids, has a large collection of working science models to educate children about the scientific facts and how things work. A trip to this museum can be both an educational and recreational experience for the youth and young children. Open from 11:30 AM to 5:30 PM. Near Gate No.2 Pragati Maidan; Tel: 2337-1893.
Nehru Museum and Planetarium
Located at the Teen Murti House, former residence of the first Prime Minister of India Late Jawaharlal Nehru, this museum covers the history of the Independence Movement of India. The planetarium shows short films dedicated to Nehru at 11:30 and 3:00 pm in English and 1:30 and 4:00 pm in Hindi. Closed Mondays. Tel: 2301-4504.
National Rail Museum
This museum which displays various models of train engines and coaches including a model of India's very first train, a steam engine that made its journey from Mumbai to Thane in 1853 should be a treat for those National Rail Museum should be a treat for those who love locomotives. This museum which covers the 150-yr old history of railways in India is sprawled over 10 acres. One of its highlight is the well-preserved locomotive Fairy Queen which was built in 1855.
Shankar’s Doll Museum
This museum houses about 6,000 dolls from over 85 countries, a third of which are from different parts of India. These dolls are dressed up in beautiful and dazzling costumes from different countries and they provide a superb means to learn about different people as well as their cultures from around the world. The Museum is open from 10 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. everyday. closed on Monday.
National Musesum of Natural History
This small museum provides a good place to learn about the varied flora and fauna of India. The museum has a Bio-Science Computer Room, an Activity Room and a Mobile Museum.The museum has a large dinosaur statue in front of its gates There is a daily film show at the museum between 11.30 am to 3.30 pm and regular lectures and exhibitions are also organized from time to time. Iit is open from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm. The museum remains closed on Saturday Tel: 2331 4849.